Spirituality

HUMAN QUALITIES OF JESUS: FILIAFIL INTIMACY WITH THE FATHER (THE ABBA EXPERIENCE OF JESUS)

Pontifical Institute of Theology and Philosophy, Alwaye

 

A

Seminar

Paper on the

HUMAN QUALITIES OF JESUS

FILIAFIL INTIMACY WITH THE FATHER

(THE ABBA EXPERIENCE OF JESUS)

 

 

Bro. Antony Madthikandam MCBS

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mangalapuzha

19-09-2009

HUMAN QUALITIES OF JESUS

FILIAFIL INTIMACY WITH THE FATHER

(THE ABBA EXPERIENCE OF JESUS)

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1.1 PERIOD OF POLYTHEISM

1.2 MONOTHEISM OF THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL

1.2.1. GOD AS A DISTANT REALITY

1.2.2. GOD WHO TAKE REVENGE AND PUNISHES HIS PEOPLE

1.2.3. FEARED TO CALL THE NAME OF GOD

1.3 GOD EXPERIENCE OF JESUS

1.3.1 CALLED GOD HIS FATHER

1.4 FILIAL INTIMACY TOWARDS HIS FATHER IN THE LIFE OF JESUS

1.4.1 AT THE TEMPLE

1.4.2 EVENT OF BAPTISM

1.4.3 AT THE DESERT

1.4.4 BEGINNING AND END OF THE DAY

1.4.5 ON IMPORTANT OCCASIONS

a) ON CHOOSING THE DISCIPLES

b) RAISING OF LAZARUS

c) AFTER THE LAST SUPPER

1.4.6 AT TRANSFIGURATION

1.4.7 AT THE TIME OF HIS DEATH

1.4.8 AT RESURRECTION

1.4.9 ASSUMPTION INTO HEAVEN

1.5 INTIMACY REVEALED BY HIS WORDS AND DEEDS

1.5.1 WE ARE ONE STATEMENTS

1.5.2 ALL MY FATHER HAS IS MINE

1.5.3 WILL OF THE ONE WHO SEND ME

1.5.4 PARABLES OF FATHER’S LOVE

1.5.5 WHEN CHOOSING THE DISCIPLES

1.5.6 RAISING LAZRUS

1.5.7 REJOICING IN THE SPIRIT

1.5.8 AT GETHSEMINY

1.6 TESTIMONY BY DESCIPLES AND OTHERS

1.6.1 SHOW US THE FATHER

1.6.2 DECLARATION OF PETER

1.6.3 TEACH US TO PRAY

1.6.4 THE DEMONIAC

1.7 ABBA EXPERIENCE IN OUR LIFE

1.7.1 LIFE OF SAINTS AS MODELS

1.7.2 EUCHARIST AS THE IDEAL MEANS OF INTIMACY

CONCLUSION

HUMAN QUALITIES OF JESUS

FILIAFIL INTIMACY WITH THE FATHER

(THE ABBA EXPERIENCE OF JESUS)

INTRODUCTION

Revelation of God in the history depends on the intellectual development, culture and the lifestyle of a particular group of people. God revealed himself to them according to their way of thinking. From the very beginning of the history of mankind humans believed to the existence of some kind of super natural reality as God. They had a kind of god experience which was deeply situated at their state and status of life. In order to understand the uniqueness of the God-experience of Jesus it is important to know the history of the People before Jesus

1.1 PERIOD OF POLYTHEISM

Polytheism was prevalent among the people till the time of Abraham. It even continued for centuries and even today there so many people having a god experience in a polytheistic context. The natural and supernatural powers were identified and worshiped by those people. All these powerful creations were considered to be gods and goddesses. It was almost impossible for them to believe in a single God.

1.2 MONOTHEISM OF THE PEOPLE OF ISRAEL

Through the call of Abraham (Gen 12, 1-9) the Revelation of God progressed to the idea of One God. The uniqueness of Abraham was that he believed in YAHWEH the one God. The promised of nation and the chosen people of God, the Israel continued the Faith of their Father Abraham. “I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out the house of slavery; you shall have no other gods before me” (Det 5, 8), (Ex 20, 1). Det 4, 1-40 is a good example of monotheistic mind of the people where Moses gives his exhortation to believe in the One God, the Lord of their forefathers. (Det 10, 12-22)

1.2.1 GOD AS A DISTANT REALITY

The people of Israel could understand YAHWEH only as a distant reality. It should also be noted that the revelation of God to that particular people was in such way so that they may understand him in their context. For them God was therefore a distant God to whom they feared to approach. Lord is said to have been sitting at heavens and at times he came down to his people but h then even reluctant to look upon him. “Look, the Lord our god has shown us his glory and greatness and we have heard his voice out of the fire… if we here the voice of the Lord anymore we will die” (Det 5, 24- 26). The people thought of God somebody distant and distinct from them.

1.2.2 GOD WHO TAKES REVENGE AND PUNISHES HIS PEOPLE

Israel also had the idea that their God is a God of revenge. Therefore they feared God and it actually motivated them to have moral life according to the Commandments of God given through Moses. The list of Punishments can be seen in the Pentateuch quiet often especially in the Book of Leviticus. (Lev 4, 1 – 5, 13). “… and the Lord was so angry with you that he was ready to destroy you.” (Det 9, 8)

1.2.3 FEARED TO CALL THE NAME OF GOD

Out of their respect and fear of the Lord they never dared to call his name. They used to call Him as the God of their forefathers namely, God of Abraham Isaac and Jacob. This distant God helped them to lead life of norms and values based on the commandment that the Lord their god has given to them. From the part of god also there is no positive attempt to reveal his name. He revealed His name to Moses only in a Mystical way (Ex 3, 14)

1.3 GOD EXPERIENCE OF JESUS

The abba experience of Jesus, beyond doubts, was his God experience since he lived as perfect human being. The difference that Jesus made in his understanding of God was the most significant thing in the Human-God relationship. He understood God in a different sense than that of the time and his understanding was even challengeable to the then existing system. He, being the son of a carpenter dared to cal God his Father, which in itself could be considered a blasphemy by the Jews.

1.3.1 CALLED GOD HIS FATHER

Abba” is the translated word “Daddy” in Aramaic, the common language of Jesus’ day. It says so much more than, “you sired me.” It is a term of absolute intimacy. Two hearts beating as one. While God is referred to as “Abba” only three times in Scripture (Mark 14, 36, Romans 8,15, and Galatians 4, 6), there’s no doubt Jesus referred to Him as such in the many times He “went away to a private place to pray.” Scholars like Jeremias and Schillebeeckx have shown that Jesus experience of God as “Abba” was so central to his personal meaning that it claimed and defined his entire identity. And in an amazing act of love Jesus gives to his disciples a gift so radical that its use will distinguish them as his own. This most intimate and personal name which Jesus alone used of God, “Abba, Father,” is now to be the one by which they themselves are to commune with God as familiarly as a child snuggles close to its mothers breast or lies safe and secure in its fathers arms. Jesus invites his followers into such unreserved union with himself that his own experience of his Father’s extraordinary closeness and care is to become their own: “When you pray, say ‘Father’ . . .” (Lk 11, 2).[1]

Jesus thus takes a word of tender familiarity, a word little children used of their own fathers, and, applying it to the God who utterly surpasses the limitations of male gender, gives it a radically transcendent meaning. The name “Abba” for Jesus thus does not mean “man” or any other created reality. What, then, does it mean? Here, precisely, is the heart of the matter: we do not yet know fully what “Abba” signifies, nor will we until heaven. There, the personal God whose intimacy with us can only be hinted at in the name “Abba” will be unveiled to us by the one whose home has forever been this Fathers heart: “No one has ever seen God; the only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has made him known’ (Jn 1, 18).[2]

1.4 FILIAL INTIMACY TOWARDS HIS FATHER IN THE LIFE OF JESUS

Jesus in his life and ministry expressed His filial Intimacy with the Father at various occasions. He was fully aware of the relationship that He should keep with His Father so as to fulfill Father’s Will on the earth for which Jesus was send.

1.4.1 AT THE TEMPLE

The Lukan infancy narrative gives the first impression of Father-Son relationship in the life of Jesus (Lk 1, 5 – 2, 52). Here the Father speaks of His Son through the Holy Spirit with the mediation of Simon, Anna and Zachariah.  But the first instance where Jesus expressed his relationship with the Father was at the Jerusalem Temple on the Occasion of His Presentation (Lk 2, 49). Here Jesus clearly expresses His Relationship with the Father that ‘don’t you know that I should be…’ this divine must expresses the necessity and intimacy of Jesus’ relationship with Father.[3]

1.4.2 EVENT OF BAPTISM

The event of baptism was another instance when Jesus personal intimacy with the Father was revealed to us (Lk 3, 22). Here not Jesus but the Father himself expresses intimacy and relationship to the Son. The ‘beloved son’ expression has special significance. Jesus is the son of the most high and his relationship to the father is so intimate that the disciples are advised to listen to his words as of that of the father.

1.4.3 AT THE DESERT

Desert experience of Jesus after the model of Moses on the mountain with the Lord for forty days, is a clear indication of his filial relationship and intimacy with the father (Lk 4, 1-10). Jesus spends forty days at the desert in union with the father and this experience actually provided him the strength and courage for his public ministry. He was even dared to face the temptations of Satan in an effective way and had the clear knowledge that it is the Lord of Israel, whom now Jesus calls his Father, is the only one who deserves all the glory and has all the power here on earth and in the heavens, and testing God is equal to spoiling his glory. This might be the Abba consciousness of the Jesus who underwent the desert experience.[4]

1.4.4 BEGINNING AND END OF THE DAY

Jesus used to pray in the beginning of the before his ministry begins and at the end of the day when all his tiresome ministry of preaching, working miracles and doing all the works demanded of Father out of his love (Mk 1, 35; 6, 46). He was going to wilderness to pray to his Father in secret. Only very few occasions the disciples were with him. When the disciples fell asleep due to the heavy work of the day Jesus was in active mood of prayer. He begins the day with the Father, work according to the will of the Father in complete union at evening He might have rested at the lap of the Father.[5]

1.4.5 ON IMPORTANT OCCASIONS

Jesus before important occasions of his life prayed to the Father in which the personal relationship and intimacy is very evident. He prayed at all the important occasions of choosing his disciples, raising Lazarus before his passion, death and resurrection through which he had to undergo in order to redeem the world.

a) ON THE OCCASION OF CHOOSING THE DISCIPLES

Before the election of the twelve Jesus prays intensely for a night, so that his mind may be conformed to the will of the Father. (Lk 6, 12) It is the only occasion where it is explicitly stated that Jesus prayed for a whole night. Jesus might have used this occasion to know the will of the Father out of which he has to choose his followers, who later has to continue the mission from above. Thus “the abba consciousness that Jesus had was peculiar in its absoluteness in surrendering to the will of the Father even in designing his future ministry in the world through whom He had specially chosen”.[6]

b) RAISING OF LAZARUS

The friendship with Lazarus and that family is clear evidence for the humanity of Jesus. This relationship, in way, turn to an occasion where the glory of god is revealed to the disciples of Jesus at all times.[7] Before this act of bringing one back to life Jesus prays publicly expressing his filial relationship with the Father (Jn 11, 41). Father listens to the Son always and Son wanted to glorify the Father in all his acts. Here lies the filial relationship of both Father and son.

c) AFTER THE LAST SUPPER

When it was the time for him to be taken up Jesus becomes disturbed at heart and goes to the mountain to be with His Father in prayer (Lk 39-46). Jesus was aware of the pain and suffering he has to have on the coming days. As a human being it was too heavy for Jesus to go all through the suffering unto death. But realizing that Father has an answer for everything Jesus approach Father through the prayer. The redeeming mission of Jesus was thus fulfilled according to the will of the father though he had the feeling that at times even Father Himself abandoned Jesus. But at the end on the cross it was proved contrary.[8]

1.4.6 AT TRANSFIGURATION

Transfiguration was again another confirmation from heaven that Father and Son are in intimate union (Mk 9, 2-8). Father wills that all the people and the nations shall listen to his beloved Son. Father is pleased with the son and confirms that it is the pleasure of the Father to declare that Jesus is the beloved Son whom he has given for the world in order to redeem it from the clutches of sin and evil. Sending an angel to strengthen Jesus is also an expression of Father’s concern for his Son.

1.4.7 AT THE TIME OF HIS DEATH

Death on the cross also gives an explicit occasion for us to know the Father-son relationship. Even at the cross the human Jesus had the feeling that even the Father abandoned Him. But at the time of death Jesus clearly pronounce that “Father, into your hands I commend my Spirit.” (Lk 23, 46) Jesus on His earthly life completely subjected himself to the will of the Father and he continued his faithfulness to the will of the Father until time of his death on the Cross.[9] He was also aware of the fact that everything Father entrusted to him was fulfilled before last breath. “It is finished” (Jn 19, 30).

1.4.8 AT RESURRECTION

Resurrection was yet another occasion which revealed the Father-Son Relationship. Here the initiative is from the Father. Father did not abandon the Son to death; but he raises Him above the limitations of this world. The resurrection thus became another instance of the manifestation of the filial affection the Father has to his beloved Son. Resurrection is a more filial  a revelation than a theological and philosophical understanding of an act of God, in which Father raises His Son from among the dead so as to not only the dead but also the those who are going to be dead till the end of the world may reach the Father through Christ, the First born in whom all are made heirs of heaven.[10]

1.4.9 ASCENSION INTO HEAVEN

Ascension was really Jesus’ reply to the Fathers’ love. The human life and the human nature he had been to until his death did not prevent him to return to his Father, nor the salvific-zeal or the love for the mankind never prevented him to remain here on earth. Jesus willed to go back to the Father in order that he can have the union in its full sense. The Father-son union was perfected in heaven through the ascension. He was seated at the right side of the Father and is having a clear role and complete share in the creative work of the Father.

1.5 INTIMACY REVEALED BY HIS WORDS AND DEEDS

Not only we can observe in the life of Jesus the filial intimacy towards the Father but also Jesus has expressed this relationship many times trough his words and deeds.

1.5.1 WE ARE ONE STATEMENTS

The feeling that “I and the father is one,” was the core of the ‘abba’ consciousness of Jesus. “… I in them and you in me, that the may become completely one, so that the world may know that you have send me and have loved them even as you have loved me” (Jn 17, 23). “… and you will leave me alone. Yet I am not alone because the Father is with me” (Jn 16, 32). Jesus was aware of son-ship and the relationship of a son to an Abba from a normal Israelites’ situation based on which He related to God the Father His Abba in heaven and ours too.[11]

1.5.2 ALL FATHER HAS IS MINE

Jesus had the firm conviction that “all my Father has, is mine.” Out of this conviction Jesus always performed miracles and taught the people.[12] “All that the Father has is mine. For this reason I said that he will take what is mine and declare to you” (Jn 16, 15). “On that day you will ask nothing of me. Very truly I tell you, if you ask anything of the Father in my name he will give it to you” (Jn 16, 23). Jesus understood the Father relationship in terms of the right of the son. Since he is the Son he has the right in all that the Father has.

1.5.3 WILL OF THE ONE WHO SEND ME

Jesus considered that doing the will of god is equal to food for the stomach. “… for I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me” (Jn 6, 38). “I have food to eat which you do not know about” (Jn 4, 32).  Jesus was well aware of his mission. Doing the mission entrusted by the Father itself was considered the best food by Jesus.

1.5.4 PARABLES OF FATHER’S LOVE

Parable of the prodigal son explains the lavishness of love of a father to his son. This parable might be a creation of Jesus from his own personal experience. He knew the nature of the Father and his love for the lost and repentant. He always liked to say the forgiving love of the Father. Parable of the lost sheep, lost coin, giving one more chance to the baron tree and all are vague but clear examples of Fathers’ love towards the children. It is the heavenly Father of Jesus’ day to day experience of this world is reflected in all these parables.[13]

1.5.5 WHEN CHOOSING THE DISCIPLES

On the occasion choosing his disciples Jesus prays intensively for a night. It is out of his personal relationship with the Father he has elected the future ministers of the church who are to lead the mystical body of Christ after he has been taken unto the right side of the Father.[14] He prays there for a whole night and tries to identify the will of the Father. On the other hand it would be a possibility that the human Jesus could choose Lazarus or somebody else according to his personal preference as normal human being. He do not fall into this human possibility only because of his personal relationship with the Father and the firm desire to do His will alone.

1.5.6 RAISING LAZRUS

Jesus also makes a public announcement of the relationship between Father and himself at the tomb of Lazarus. Before raising Lazarus to life Jesus pray to the Father a moment aloud which explicitly state his relationship to the Father. “Father I thank you for having heard me. I knew that you always here me, but I have said this for the sake of the crowd standing here, so that the may believe that you sent me” (Jn 11, 41-42). ‘I wanted to glorify you and I know that you always here my prayers’ gives the state of his relationship to the Father.[15]

1.5.7 REJOICING IN SPIRIT

Lk 10, 21-22 is again a great pronouncement of Father-Son relationship. The joy of Jesus here is nothing other than the glory of the Father. “I thank you Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because you have hidden these things from the wise and the intelligent and revealed them to infants; yes Father, such was your glorious will. All things have been handed over to me by my Father; and no one knows who the Son is except the Father, or who the Father is except the son and to anyone to whom the Son chooses to reveal” (Lk 10, 21-22). Father-Son relationship is all the more evident in this passage. Jesus, both at the moment of his joy and sorrow never forgets to praise the Father.[16]

1.5.8 AT GETHSEMANE

Gethsemane experience of Jesus should in no way be omitted in explaining the filial relationship between Father and Son. Here the complete surrender of the will of Jesus to the will of the Father is very evident. God the Father never changes his mind but the human Jesus changes his mind. This is a model and a real example of Jesus to his disciples for ever. The pain and suffering that Jesus had while thinking of the suffering, death and abandonment was so severe that it produced not sweat but blood from his body. But still the will of the Father sustained (Lk 22, 42).

1.6 TESTIMONY BY DESCIPLES AND OTHERS

Not only form the words and deeds of Jesus but also from the witness of the disciples and even of the daemons we understand the filial relationship that Jesus had to his Father. The relationship is made explicit through their mouth too.

1.6.1 SHOW US THE FATHER

One of the disciples asking Jesus to show them all the Father to whom Jesus relates always in prayer gives the sound impression that Jesus had such a relationship towards his Father that even his disciples who are mostly doubtful and weak in understanding could guess the fact that Jesus their beloved master has a Father to whom Jesus has got such a deep relationship that they could also be learned and imitated. (Jn 14, 8). The “I am the way[17]” statement of Jesus’ answer again is a testimony of His relationship to Father.

1.6.2 DECLARATION OF PETER

Peter, the future head of the Apostolic Community, pronounced as the representative of the disciples with an inspiration from above that Jesus is the Son of the God, the most high. His proclamation was in anyway not knowing the divine and human nature of Jesus completely but it was a heavenly attestation of God the Father trough the mouth of Peter in order that they may believe and to be prepared for witnessing that faith in future. (Mt 16, 16)[18]

1.6.3 TEACH US TO PRAY

The prayer experience that Jesus had at various occasions might have influenced the disciples. They might have observed the prayer of Jesus and should have been marveled at the relationship of Jesus towards his Father. They too wanted to have such an experience of prayer. That is why they bring the example of ‘John the Baptist teaching his disciples to pray’ as an argument relevant to put before Jesus so as Jesus to teach them to pray [19](Lk 11, 1). Knowing the mind of the disciples Jesus teaches them the classical prayer of the Bible the “Abba Father”, a Prayer addressing to God, the Father. The content of the prayer also explains how deeply Jesus was related to Father and seek out only thy will.

1.6.4 THE DEMONIAC

Even the Demoniac understood that Jesus the Son of the Father send to this world to redeem the mankind from the slavery of sin. The feared Jesus and not only but they pronounced that he is the beloved son of God and has the power and relationship with the Father out of which Jesus has got the authority over them.[20]  “… and he shouted at in a loud voice, ‘What have you to do with me , Jesus, Son of the Most High God? I adjure you by god, do not torment me’”(Mk 5, 7).

1.7 ABBA EXPERIENCE IN OUR LIFE

The abba experience of Jesus should also be a good example before us. The Christian life of witnessing demands such a deep relationship with the person of Jesus and the heavenly Father. Life of Jesus it self is a model before us; and also we can learn from the life of saints observing that how they practiced this relationship in imitating Jesus.

1.7.1 LIFE OF SAINTS AS MODELS

The god experience after the model of Jesus can be I different ways. Jesus identified god as the Father and that is the ideal way. But more important thing is that the intimacy with god. Saints practiced this intimacy in different ways. St. Teresa of Child Jesus and Holy Face selected the way of a spiritual childhood to relate to Father God. She considered her self as a little child of the Father and sometimes as friend of child Jesus and even at other occasion as a ply ball at the hand of child Jesus. These all were her ways in expressing the intimate relationship with the Lord. St. Teresa of Avila is yet another example of a mystical union with God. She considered god as husband and sometimes as a lover who seek for his beloved. St. Teresa of Calcutta, again another Theresa understood the suffering Jesus as her personal God. She expresses the love Jesus towards the abandoned in relation to the Fathers’ concern for the children

1.7.2 EUCHARIST AS THE IDEAL MEANS OF INTIMACY

Ideal means to grow in our intimacy with God is the Eucharistic sacrifice itself. Jesus is present to us completely in the Eucharistic mysteries. One who receives him with proper intention and adequate preparation receives Christ in his entirety and become one with Christ. Eucharistic sacrifice also commemorates the love of the Father towards this world. The salvific mysteries are made present for the people of the present times, is through the Eucharist. Holy Communion preserves the supernatural life of the soul by giving the communicant supernatural strength to resist temptation, and by weakening the power of concupiscence. It reinforces the ability of our free will to withstand the assaults of the devil. It help us to avoid the occasions of sin and to have complete union with the Holy Trinity and thus capable of  doing the will of the Father always, in this life on earth. In a formal definition, the Church calls Holy Communion “an antidote by which we are preserved from grievous sins” (Council of Trent, October 11, 1551). St. Cyprian of Carthage (c. 200 – 258 A.D.) says, “If Christ Jesus, our Lord and God, is Himself the High Priest of God the Father; and if he offered himself as a sacrifice to the father; and if he commanded that this be done in commemoration of himself — then certainly the priest, who imitates that which Christ did, truly functions in place of Christ.” (Letters 63:14).

CONCLUSION

The abba consciousness of Jesus was so firm that in all his words, deeds and action he represented the Father and His will. His relationship with the Father was very evident to anyone who listened to him, all those who approached him and even the daemons. Not only Jesus had the awareness and conviction that Father is with him and he is in union with the Father but also the Father too has confirmed that Jesus is his beloved Son and it is to whom the nations and the people shall listen especially on the occasions of baptism, transfiguration and at last on the moment of resurrection. “When Jesus walked among us, He had a special name for God. When he called Him “Abba,” he introduced to the world a new and more richly intimate view of God” (St. Justin the Martyr (c. 100 – 165 A.D.) Dialogue with Trypho, 41).

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

  1. JEREMIAS, Joachim, “Abba,” in Abba (Gtittingen: Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, 1966).
  2. SCHILLEBEECKX, Edward O.P., Jesus: An Experiment in Christology (New York: Seabury, 1979).
  3. GRAEF, Richard, Yes Father (New York: Frederick Pustet Co. Inc., 1938).
  4. MARITAIN, Jacques, On the Grace and Humanity of Jesus (London: Burns and Oates Limited, 1969).
  5. BUCKLEY, James J., Seeking the Humanity of God: Practices Doctrines, and Catholic Theology (Minnesota: The Liturgical Press, 1992).
  6. WEINANDY, Thomas, In the Likeness of Sinful Flesh: An essay on the humanity of Christ. (Edinburgh: TT Clark Publishers, 1993).
  7. TORRANCE, Iain, Jesus, Humanity and the Trinity (London: Burns and Oates Ltd., 2000).
  8. BARBOTIN, Edmund, Humanity of God (New York: Orbis Books, 1976).
  9. BARTH, KARL Humanity of God (London: Collins, 1961).
  10. GRUEN, Anselm Jesus: The images of humanity (New York: Continuum, 2003).
  11. COMBLIN, Jose, Jesus of Nazareth: Meditations on his Humanity (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1979).
  12. WEINANDY, Thomas, In the Likeness of Sinful Flesh: An essay on the humanity of Christ. (Edinburgh: TT Clark Publishers, 1993).
  13. ROME. Liturgical Commission, Abba, Father (Mumbai: Pauline Publications, 1998).
  14. UNDERHILL, Evelyn, Abba: Meditations based on the Lord’s Prayer (London: Green and Co., 1940).
  15. AMALDAS, Yesu Abba consciousness: Method of a Christian yogic meditation (Bangalore: Asian trading corporation, 1982).
  16. KODELL, Jerome, Collegeville Bible Commentary: the Gospel according to Luke.Vol.3 (Minnesota: Liturgical press, 1982).
  17. HILL, David, New century bible Commentary: the Gospel of Matthew.Vol.13 (London: Marshall, Morgan Scott, 1981).
  18. LINDARS, BARNABAS, New century bible commentary: the Gospel of John.Vol.16 (London: Morgan Scott, 1981).


[1] JOACHIM JEREMIAS, “Abba,” in Abba (Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Gtittingen 1966) 14.

[2] EDWARD SCHILLEBEECKX O.P., Jesus: An Experiment in Christology (Seabury, New York 1979) 09.

[3] JEROME KODELL, Collegeville Bible Commentary: the Gospel According to Luke.Vol.3 (Minnesota: Liturgical press, 1982) 98.

[4] DAVID HILL, New century bible Commentary: the Gospel of Matthew.Vol.13 (London: Marshall, Morgan     Scott, 1981) 105-107.

[5] THOMAS WEINANDY, In the Likeness of Sinful Flesh: An essay on the humanity of Christ. (Edinburgh: TT Clark Publishers, 1993)  46.

[6] KARL BARTH, Humanity of God (London: Collins, 1961) 166.

[7] BARNABAS LINDARS, New century bible commentary: the Gospel of John.Vol.16 (London: Morgan Scott, 1981) 574.

[8] BARNABAS LINDARS, New century bible commentary: the Gospel of John, 683.

[9] JEROME KODELL, Collegeville Bible Commentary: the Gospel According to Luke, 218.

[10] AMALDAS, Yesu Abba consciousness: Method of a Christian yogic meditation (Bangalore: Asian trading corporation, 1982) 127.

[11] EVELYN UNDERHILL, Abba: Meditations based on the Lord’s Prayer (London: Green and Co., 1940) 29.

[12] EVELYN UNDERHILL, Abba: Meditations based on the Lord’s Prayer, 43.

[13] ANSELM GRUEN, Jesus: The images of humanity (New York: Continuum, 2003) 96.

[14] ROME. Liturgical Commission, Abba, Father (Mumbai: Pauline Publications, 1998) 33.

[15] BARNABAS LINDARS, New century bible commentary: the Gospel of John, 326.

[16] JEROME KODELL, Collegeville Bible Commentary: the Gospel According to Luke, 189.

[17] JOSE COMBLIN, Jesus of Nazareth: Meditations on his Humanity (Dublin: Gill and Macmillan, 1979) 101-103.

[18] JOSE COMBLIN, Jesus of Nazareth: Meditations on his Humanity, 124.

[19] IAIN TORRANCE, Jesus, Humanity and the Trinity (London: Burns and Oates Ltd., 2000) 94-96.

[20] THOMAS WEINANDY, In the Likeness of Sinful Flesh: An essay on the humanity of Christ. (Edinburgh: TT Clark Publishers, 1993) 202-205.

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